World Historical Events Since 5000 B.C. – Part II

Historical Events From 1347 AD to 1605 AD (Part 2)

1347 Calais surrenders to the English Army.
1348 The  Black Death, a violent plague, spreads to England from the Continent and kills a quarter of the four million population.
1353 Statute of Praemunire limits appeals to the Pope.
1356 English victory at Battle of Poitiers. Ottoman Turks invade Europe.
1360 Treaty of Bretigny cedes French provinces to Edward III.
1375 Truce of Bruges–English lose most of their gains in France.
1377 Richard  II, grandson of Edward  III, becomes king.
1378 Great Schism in Western Church begins.
1380 Chaucer writing The Canterbury Tales about this time ; he helps to popularize English as the literary language.
1381 Wat Tyler leads the Peasants’ Revolt, in protest against oppressive  taxes for raising money for the war.
1382 John Wyclitfe, translator of the Bible into English and founder of Lollard priests, condemned as a heretic.
1388 Lords  Appellant  destroy Richard  II’s Court  Party.
1399 Richard  II deposed;  Henry IV  of the  House of Lancaster is king.
1400 Owen Glendower leads a Welsh rising against the English.
1401 Persecution of the Lollards; the burning of heretics authorized.
1402 Ottoman Turks defeated by Timur  the Tartar  (Tamerlane).
1403 Battle of Shrewsbury; defeat of the Percies of Northumberland  and of the Scots and Welsh rebels.
1413 Henry V becomes king and revives the claim to the French crown.
1415 Victory of Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt in France.   Prince Henry of Portugal begins”Age of Discovery.”   John Huss burnt at the stake at Constance.
1417 English conquest of Normandy and capture of Caen.
1420 Treaty  of Troyes; Henry  marries Princess Katherine, the French Icing’s daughter, and becomes Regent of France.
1422 Death of Henry V; he is succeeded by Henry VI, a child of nine months, and war with France breaks out again.
1429 Joan of Arc raises the siege of Orleans, besieged by an English army. Charles VII crowned King of France at Rheims.
1431 Joan of Arc burned by the English at Rouen.
1450 Printing (with metal types) invented by John Gutenberg of Mainz. Jack Cade leads a rising against the unpopular government.
1453 French regain all lost territories except Calais.  Henry VI becomes insane.   Turks  capture  Constantinople. Greek scholars flee and set up schools in Italy, where they help in a revival of learning, known as the Renaissance.
1455 Wars of the Roses begin between Yorkists and Lancastrians for control of the country, and last many years.
1460 Battles of Northampton and Wakefield.
1461 Battles of Mortimer’s  Cross, St.  Albans, and  Towton. Edward of York declared king as Edward IV, with the support of the Earl of Warwick, “Warwick he King-maker.”
1464 Battles of Hedgeley Moor and Hexham-Yorkist victories.
1470 Edward quarrels with Warwick and has to flee the country.
1471 Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury leave Edward IV victorious.
1476 William Caxton sets up the first printing press in England.
1483 The  boy King, Edward V, succeeds to the throne: he is imprisoned with his brother in the Tower of London and murdered. Richard of Gloucester becomes king as Richard III.
1485 Battle of Bosworth; Richard defeated. Henry, Earl of Richmond, becomes King Henry VII, the first of the Tudor  kings.
1486 Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York and unites the Roses.
1487 Bartholomew Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope. Lambert Simnel, Yorkist claimant to the throne, defeated. Court of Star Chamber tries offences outside the Courts of Law.
1492 Columbus discovers the outposts of the American continent. Moors driven from Spain back to North Mrica.
1497 Cabot sets sail from Bristol and discovers Newfoundland.
1498 Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut in India.
1509 Henry VIII  becomes king.
1513 France invaded; French defeat at  the Battle of the Spurs. Scots invade England, but are defeated at Flodden in Northumberland.
1516 Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, Chancellor and Cardinal, becomes the King’s adviser.
1517 Luther’s Ninety-five Theses begin the Reformation struggle.
1519 Charles V becomes Emperor.
1520 Henry  VIII meets Francis  I of France  on the Field of the Cloth of Gold with a view to an alliance.
1521 England renews the war against France. Henry VIII supports. the Pope ‘against Luther; he later receives the title of “Defender of the Faith.”
1522 Magellan’s crew complete their voyage round  the world.
1525 Tyndale’s  translation  of the New Testament published.
1529 The Pope refuses Henry’s request  for a divorce from Katharine  of Aragon.
1530 Wolsey dismissed  by Henry; he dies on the way to trial in London.
1533 Henry, granted  a divorce  by Archbishop Cranmer, marries  Anne Boleyn.
1534 Henry VIII abolishes the authority of the Pope  in England  and  declares himself “Supreme Head of the English Church.”
1536 Beginning of dissolution  of  monasteries  and  confiscation of their  wealth.
1542 War with Scotland; Scots defeated at the Battle of Solway Moss.
1544 War with France; capture of Boulogne.
1545 Council of Trent and Catholic Counter-Reformation begin.
1547 Edward VI, aged ten, succeeds to the throne. Duke of Somerset  appointed Protector.  Scots reject Somerset’s attempt  to carry out  previously agreed marriage  between  Edward  VI  and  Mary  Queen  of Scots. Scots  defeated at the Battle of Pinkie, but Mary is sent to France.
1549 Risings follow compulsory use of the new Book of Common Prayer.
1552 Second Prayer Book.
1553 Death of Edward  VI. Lady Jane  Grey  proclaimed  queen,  but imprisoned and later executed. Mary,  Catholic  daughter  of Henry  VIII, succeeds  to the throne. Reformation leaders imprisoned.
1554 Marriage of Mary to Philip II of Spain, a leader of Catholicism in Europe.
1555-6 Persecution of Protestants; Ridley, Latimer  and  Cranmer  burnt  at stake.
1556 Abdication of Emperor  Charles V.
1558 Loss of Calais, last English possession in France. Death  of  Mary; she  is succeeded by Elizabeth, Protestant daughter of Henry VIII.
1559 Protestantism restored as the national religion.
1567 Mary Queen of Scots deposed  by Scottish  nobles.
1568 Mary seeks refuge in England, but is imprisoned  by Elizabeth.  Revolt of Netherlands against Spain begins.
1571 Turkish Navy defeated  at Lepanto by Don  John  of Austria.
1580 Francis Drake returns after sailing round  the world.
1583 Colony of Newfoundland established  in the New World.
1587 Mary Queen of Scots executed for plots against Elizabeth.
1588 Destruction of the Spanish  Armada  sent to invade England.
1594 Shakespeare writing playS in London.
1600 Formation  of the East India  Company.
1601 Elizabethan Poor Law passed.
1603 Death of Elizabeth; James VI of Scotland succeeds her as James I of England, so uniting  the two monarchies.
1604 James I upholds the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings at Hampton Court  Conference. A new translation of the Bible is suggested.
1605 Roman  Catholic  Gunpowder Plot  to blow up  the  Houses of Parliament discovered; Guy Fawkes and other conspirators arrested.

 continue on part III ….

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