World Historical Events Since 5000 B.C. – Part I

Historical Events Since 5000 B.C. (Part 1)

B.C.
5000 BC Early civilization of Egypt.
2800 BC (approx) Minoan civilization in Crete.
2500 BC (approx) Pyramids built in Egypt.
2100 BC (approx) Ascendancy of Babylon under Hammurabi.
2000 BC (approx) Great age of Egypt.
1200 BC (approx) Expansion of Assyria.
1000 BC (approx) King David rules in Israel.
753 BC Traditional date of founding of Rome.
586 BC Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar.
560 BC Birth of Buddha, great religious teacher, in India.
550 BC Confucius, great religious teacher of China, born.
539 BC Cyrus founds Persian Empire.
490 – 480 BC Greeks defeat Persians.
450 BC (approx) Great age of Pericles in Greece.
350 BC (approx) Phoenicians first visit Britain.
333 BC Alexander of Macedon extends Greek power.
325 BC Pytheas, Greek traveller, explores Britain.
266 BC All Italy under Roman control.
146 BC Carthage destroyed by Romans.
102 BC Julius Caesar born.
55 BC Julius Caesar invades Britain.
31 BC (approx) Octavius Caesar (Augustus) supreme in Rome.
5 BC (approx) Birth of Jesus.
A. D.
30 Crucifixion of Jesus.
43 Roman General, Aulus Plautius, invades and conquers Britain south of the Humber.
61 Rebellion of Boadicea, British warrior-queen, against the Roman invaders; the rebellion fails.
78-81 Julius  Agricola, Roman  Governor  of  Britain, completes the  Roman conquest.
120 Hadrian’s Wall built to mark northern limit of Roman occupation, and to keep out the wild tribes in the north of the island.
330 Constantinople built by Emperor Constantine.
410 Roman soldiers withdraw from Britain in order to defend Rome against the attacks of their barbarian neighbours.    Alaric the Goth captures Rome.
449 Beginnings of settlements in Britain by Jutes, Angles and Saxons, who sail across the North Sea in open boats.
451 Attila the Hun repulsed at Chalons in France.
476 Fall of the Roman Empire of the West.
530 St. Benedict begins his monasteries.   Saxons establish the Kingdom of Wessex.
597 Augustine arrives in Britain, sent by Pope Gregory to spread Christianity; he baptizes Ethelbert, King of Kent.
617 King of Northumbria subdues all England except Kent.
622 Mohammedan religion founded in Arabia.
626 Kingdom of Mercia rises to greatness.
655 Oswy of Northumbria defeats Mercia and gains supremacy.
664 Synod  of  Whitby,  summoned  by  King  Oswy  of  Northumbria,  allies English Church with Rome.
711 Moors cross from North Africa into Spain.
732 Moors repulsed from France by Charles Martel.
758 Mercia, under  King Offa, becomes the strongest English kingdom; Offa builds a dyke to keep back the Welsh.
800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
829 Wessex victory over Mercia.  Egbert recognized as first King of All England.
854 Norsemen from Denmark and Norway settle in southern England.
867 Danish kingdom established in northern England.
870 Danes conquer East Anglia and settle there.
871 Ethelred and Alfred defeat the Danes at Ashdown. Alfred succeeds to the throne of Wessex.
878 Alfred and  the Danish  leader, Guthrum,  sign Treaty  of Wedmore and divide England between them.
888 Empire founded by Charlemagne breaks up.
899 Edward the Elder succeeds Alfred the Great and recaptures most of Danish England.
911 Norsemen settle in Normandy.
959 Edgar the Peaceful becomes king of a united England and receives homage from Wales and Ireland.
960 Dunstan,  chief minister to Edgar, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury; he rules with vigour and wisdom.
962 Otto the Great of Germany revives the Holy Roman Empire.
979 Ethelred  the Unready  unable to throw  back new Danish invasions into England.
992 Ethelred levies the Danegeld, a sum of money to buy off the Danes and so keep them within certain limits of territory.
1000 Norsemen discover North America (Vinland).
1006 Mohammedans invade North-west India.
1013 Sweyn of Denmark invades England; flight of Ethelred to Normandy with his family and Norman wife.
1016 Death of Ethelred in exile.
1017 Sweyn’s son, Canute, proclaimed King of England, England thus becoming part of his empire, which included Denmark and, later, Norway.
1035 Death of Canute; he is succeeded by his son, Harold.
1040 Harold dies and is succeeded by his brother, Hardicanute, who re-imposes the Danegeld.
1042 Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred, succeeds to the throne; he is said to have named William of Normandy as his successor.
1055 Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad.
1066 Harold, son of Earl Godwin of Wessex, elected king by the English Witan or Council of Wise Men. William, Duke of Normandy, invades England. Battle of Hastings, in which Harold is killed.
1070 Normans   introduce  Feudal   System   into  England. Hereward   the  Wake rebels against Normans  and holds out in the Isle of Ely.
1073 Hildebrand becomes  Pope  Gregory VII. Beginning of struggle between Pope and Emperor.
1074 Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem.
1086 Domesday Book, a survey of the land and buildings of England,  made for tax purposes.
1087 Death of William the Conqueror. Barons’ revolt against his son, William II, defeated.
1096 Beginning  of the  Crusades,  in which  armies  from  Europe  go to Palestine to wrest the Holy Land from the Saracens.
1099 Crusaders recapture Jerusalem.
1100 Henry I becomes king. His Charter of Liberties restores Saxon laws.
1106 Henry I extends  his rule over Normandy and Wales.
1122 Concordat  of Worms  between Pope and Emperor.
1135 Stephen  becomes  king,  although  he  had  sworn  to  support  his  cousin Matilda’s claim to the throne.
1138 Scots  invade  England   and  are  defeated  at  the  Battle  of  the  Standard, fought  near Northallerton in Yorkshire.
1141 Stephen  imprisoned by  Matilda, who  proves  an  unpopular ruler  and  is overthrown.
1147 Second Crusade.
1154 Henry  II, ruler of the greater part of France, succeeds to the English throne.
1155 Frederick Barbarossa, Emperor.
1164 Constitutions of  Clarendon   define  relations  between  Church and  State. Archbishop Becket opposes  Henry II’s reform  of the Church.
1166 Creation  of “Common Law”  and Jury  System.
1170 Murder of Becket in Canterbury Cathedral by four of the King’s  knights: for this the King does penance.
1171 Conquest of Ireland  by Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke.  Henry  II assumes the tide of Lord  of Ireland.
1174 William the Lion, King of Scots, invades England  but is defeated and pays homage.
1187 Saladin captures  Jerusalem  from Crusaders.
1189 Richard  I succeeds  Henry  II. Receives  payment  from  William  the  Lion for Scotland’s independence.
1192 Richard  I defeats  Saladin,  Sultan  of Egypt,  in the Third Crusade.  Richard  I captured by his rivals, the German  princes, but after two years ransomed  from captivity in Germany.
1199 John, Henry  II’s youngest son, appointed  king.
1204 Loss   of  Normandy  and  other   English   possessions  in  France.  Fourth Crusade  sacks Constantinople.
1206 King  John  opposes  the  Pope’s  choice of Archbishop of Canterbury. The Pope puts England  under a ban.
1213 Genghis  Khan and his Mongol army conquer  China.  King  John  submits  to  the  Pope  in anticipation  of aid for reconquest of French territories.
1214 John’s allies defeated at the Battle of Bouvines in Flanders.
1215 Barons rebel against King John.  John  agrees to Magna Carta. Grievances of the Barons and Church  redressed.  Power of the monarchy limited.
1216 Death of John;  he is succeeded  by his son, Henry  III, a boy of nine.
1217 Treaty of Lambeth ends French invasion of England.
1221 Religious revival in England; arrival  of Dominican and  Franciscan  friars.
1241 Invasion  of Europe  by the Mongols of Central  Asia.
1242 Great  Council  refuses grants  to Henry  III for re-conquest of France.
1258 Simon de Montfort and the Barons compel Henry  III to rule with Council of Barons (Provisions of Oxford).
1264 Civil War: Simon  defeats Henry III at the Battle of Lewes.
1265 Simon de Montfort’s parliament of Barons, Church and Shire representatives; he is later defeated  and  killed at Battle of Evesham  by Edward,  son of Henry Ill.
1272 Edward  I proclaimed  king.
1284 Edward  I completes the conquest  of Wales and  begins . building  castles to maintain his authority. First Prince of Wales hom  at Caemarvon.
1291 Acre, last Crusader  stronghold, falls.
1295 Model Parliament of  Barons,  Church   and  Commons  summoned   by Edward I. Marco Polo returns after twenty-four years in China and Asia.
1296 Edward  I defeats the  Scots at Dunbar and  captures  the Stone  of Destiny on which Scottish  kings had been crowned.
1297 Scottish War of Independence begins; William Wallace defeats the English at the Battle of Stirling  Bridge.
1298 Wallace defeated at the Battle of Falkirk by Edward  I.
1307 Edward  II becomes king.
1314 Edward  II defeated  at Battle of Bannockburn by Robert Bruce.
1327 Edward III becomes king, after his father had been deposed and murdered.
1328 Independence of Scotland  recognized.
1333 Edward  III defeats the Scots at the Battle of Halidon Hill.
1338 Beginning  of the  “Hundred Years’  War” between  England  and  France, when Edward  III claims the French crown.  Immigrant Flemish  weavers develop the woollen trade in England.
1340 French naval defeat off Sluys; England  secures command  of the Channel.
1346 English victory at Battle of Crecy, and siege of Calais.

 continue on part II ….

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